A2 Middle Class

In most countries of Western Europe, Sinti and Roma were banned for centuries from joining trade associations and guilds, and many of them therefore became dealers and merchants. In Western Europe especially, many Sinti and Roma were successful business people. Their children attended local schools, and many Roma and Sinti served as soldiers in World War I. For their services to king and country, some Roma and Sinti were even raised to the nobility.

The Sinto Max Bamberger (on the right) with his family in a photograph taken in 1935.